Foams consist of a discrete gas or bubble phase dispersed in either a liquid or solid continuous phase. These range from liquid foams such as shaving cream, bath foam and fire retardants to solid foams including polymeric foams, metal foams and natural pumice.

Other systems which can be categorized as both solid and liquid foams depending on their stage of manufacture and environment are bread and ice cream respectively.

Malvern’s range of analytical instruments and application expertise can be used to

  • Optimize viscoelastic properties to improve foam quality and stability
  • Determine bubble characteristics
  • Characterize foam stabilizing components
  • Verify performance and consumer acceptance of products
  • Measure interfacial properties.

Depending on the nature of the foam and its continuous phase, different mechanisms may be responsible for its characteristics and stability. Often a surface active agent is used to minimize the interfacial tension between the gas and continuous phase and usually takes the form of an organic surfactant or amphiphilic particle, although polymer and proteins can play a similar role.

Bulk and interfacial rheological properties also have a critical impact on foam volume and stability and can be dependent on bulk/surface composition and molecular architecture of stabilizing components.